Standard Test Method for One-Dimension Consolidation Properties of Soil Using Incremental Loading. GeoTesting Express is a provider of Soil Testing Services – ASTM D, Standard Test Method for One-Dimensional Consolidation Properties of Soils. Buy ASTM D TEST METHODS FOR ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION PROPERTIES OF SOILS USING INCREMENTAL.

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The values stated in inch-pound units are approximate and given for guidance only.

The apparatus in asttm use does not have provisions for formal verification of pore pressure dissipation. Time-deformation readings are required on a minimum of two load increments. The analysis is based upon the following assumptions:. Equipment is available to perform consolidation tests using back pressure saturation. The apparatus in general use for these test methods do not have provisions for verification of saturation. How one applies the results obtained using this standard is beyond its scope.

Two alternative procedures are provided as follows:. Since c varies with stress level and load increment loading or unloadingthe load increments with timed readings must be selected with specific reference to the individual project.

ASTM D Standard

Careful selection and preparation of test specimens is required to reduce the potential of disturbance effects. Traditionally, the axial stress is doubled for each increment resulting in a load increment ratio of 1.

It is scientifically undesirable to combine two separate systems within a single standard. Two alternative procedures are provided as follows: This implicitly combines two separate systems of units, that is, the absolute system and the gravimetric system. Reporting of test results in units other than SI shall not be regarded as nonconformance with this test method. The addition of back pressure saturation does not constitute non-conformance to these test methods.


ASTM D2435

Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. Alternatively, the test may be performed using an apparatus equipped to saturate the specimen.

However, the time rate of deformation is very sensitive to degree of saturation and caution must be exercised regarding estimates for duration of settlements when partially saturated conditions prevail. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other.

The extent to which partial saturation influences the test results may be a part of the test evaluation and may include application of theoretical models other than conventional consolidation theory. Estimates of this type are of key importance in the design of engineered structures and the evaluation of their performance.

Consolidation test results are dependent upon the duration of each load increment. Load increment ratios of less than 1 may be desirable for soils that are highly sensitive or whose response is highly dependent on strain rate. Note 2—Time-deformation readings are required to determine the time for completion of primary consolidation and for evaluating the coefficient of consolidation, c v.

Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. The test results can be greatly affected by sample disturbance. Other loading schedules may be used to model particular field conditions or meet special requirements.

Time-deformation readings are required on a minimum of two load increments. Since c v varies with stress level and loading type loading or unloadingthe load increments with timed readings must be selected with d235 reference to the individual project.


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The compressibility of soil particles and pore water is negligible compared to the compressibility of the soil skeleton. Alternative techniques to estimate the preconsolidation stress may be used when agreed to by the requesting agency and still be in conformance with these test methods. In particular, the rate of consolidation interpretation of the time curves is only applicable to fully saturated specimens. Active view current version of standard.

The interpretation method specified by these test methods to estimate the preconsolidation stress provides a simple technique to verify that one set of time readings are taken after the preconsolidation stress and that the specimen is loaded to a sufficiently high stress level. Tests performed on other soils such as compacted and residual weathered or chemically altered soils may require special evaluation techniques. This test method provides the compression curve with explicit data to account for secondary compression, the coefficient of consolidation for saturated materials, and the rate of secondary compression.

Several other evaluation techniques exist and may yield different estimates of astk preconsolidation stress. Consolidation test results are dependent on the magnitude of the load increments. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.