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What is Object-Oriented Programming? For example, in the following program, it is not possible to write A.

This multiple interface inheritance allows objects to support multiple common behaviors without sharing annktations superclass. If an annotation a corresponds to a type Tand T has a meta- annotation m that corresponds to java. This modifier is obsolete and should not be used in new programs. Inheritance and Overriding 9. It is a compile-time error if an annotation type T is meta- annotated with an Repeatable annotation whose value element indicates a type which is not anotations containing annotation type of T.

Often compilers determine the language used in a source file from its extension. In the type of field xE and F would logically be names qualifying Gas E. In essence, a static method in an interface cannot “hide” an instance method in a superinterface. If annoations code was legal, then multiple levels of containment would be needed: Target is not present on the declaration of an annotation type Tannotxtions T is applicable in all declaration contexts except type parameter declarations, and in no type contexts.

The function type of a functional interface type is annltations as follows:. Naturally, when two different default methods with cc signatures are inherited by a subinterface, there is a behavioral conflict. However, any attempt within the body of the interface to refer to any such field by its simple name will result in a compile-time error, because such a reference is ambiguous.


To distinguish an annotation type declaration from a normal interface declaration, the keyword interface is preceded by an at-sign. For example, given the following declarations of repeatable and containing annotation types: Field Constant Declarations 9. The pre-defined annotation types contain several such circularities. These distinctions are subtle, but they can sometimes be important. This complexity is undesirable in the judgment of the designers of the Java programming language.

Note that if non- public methods of Objectsuch as cloneare declared in an interface, they are annotatons automatically implemented by every class that implements the interface. If an interface chooses to declare them explicitly i.

Generic Interfaces and Type Parameters 9. U – then U denotes an inner class of T. However, consider an interface that attempts to use Override on a clone method: Unless explicitly modified herein, all of the rules that apply to normal interface declarations apply to annotation type declarations.

Previous modifications can be found in the distribution’s whatsnew. The third clause above prevents a subinterface from re-inheriting a method that has already been overridden by another of its superinterfaces.

Inheritedthen the declaration of TC must have a meta -annotation that corresponds to java.

It is safer in this situation to ask the user to actively assert that the default implementation is appropriate via an overriding declaration. A variable whose declared type is an interface type may have as its value a reference to any instance of a class which implements the specified interface.

If the element value is an ElementValueArrayInitializerthen the array value represented by the ElementValueArrayInitializer is associated with the element.


Chapter 9. Interfaces

It is possible for Foo to be both a declaration annotation and a type annotation simultaneously. If two or more distinct field modifiers appear in a field declaration, it is customary, though not annotation, that they appear in the order consistent with that shown above in the production for ConstantModifier.

All received mail is processed conscientiously, and received suggestions for improvements are usually processed by the time a new version of the Annotations is released. The function type of I consists of the following:.

Chapter 2: Introduction

It is a compile-time error if a member type declaration in an interface has the modifier protected or private. This “single” method may take the form of multiple abstract methods with override-equivalent signatures inherited from superinterfaces; in this case, the inherited methods logically represent a single method.

E is mentioned in one of the anbotations clauses. The declaration of a functional interface allows a functional interface type to be used in a program. It is a compile-time error to refer to a type parameter of an interface I anywhere in the declaration of a field or type member of I. Except for the incidental case I will normally not acknowledge the receipt of suggestions for improvements. Defaults for Annotation Type Elements 9.

For example, C applies to the type int in all of the following declarations: It is a compile-time error if an interface method declaration is default or static and has a semicolon for its body. Identifier [ Dims ].