Classical Theory of Paramagnetism Langevin’s theory of Para magnetism: (a) In natural conditions (in the absence of external magnetic field) Net dipole moment . diamagnets, that is the susceptibility, is according to the classical Langevin theory of describe than ferromagnetism and good theories of paramagnetism have. Langevin’s Theory of Diamagnetism, Langevin’s Theory of Paramagnetism, Langevin’s Function, Saturation value of Magnetization, Curie’s Law.

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Paramagnetic materials include aluminiumoxygentitaniumand iron oxide FeO. They are characterized by a strong ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic type of coupling into domains of a limited size that behave independently from one another. The distances to other oxygen atoms in the lattice remain too langein to lead to delocalization and the magnetic moments remain unpaired.

Even in the presence of the field there is only a small induced magnetization because only a theorh fraction of the spins will be oriented by the field. In this narrowest sense, the only pure paramagnet is a dilute gas of monatomic hydrogen atoms. For some alkali metals and noble metals, conductions electrons are weakly interacting and delocalized in space forming a Fermi gas.

They are also called mictomagnets. The narrowest definition would be: Moreover, the size of the magnetic moment on a lanthanide atom can be quite large as it can carry up to 7 unpaired electrons in the case of gadolinium III hence its use in MRI. The quenching tendency is weakest for f-electrons because f especially 4 f orbitals are radially contracted and they overlap only weakly with orbitals on adjacent atoms. Due to their spinunpaired electrons have a magnetic dipole moment and act like tiny magnets.


Constituent atoms or molecules of paramagnetic materials have permanent magnetic moments dipoleseven in the absence of an applied field. This type of behavior is of an itinerant nature and better called Pauli-paramagnetism, but it is not rheory to see, for example, the metal aluminium called a “paramagnet”, even though interactions are strong enough to give this element very good electrical conductivity.

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Since the Fermi level must be identical for both bands, this means that there will be a small surplus of the type of spin in the band that moved downwards. The magnetic moment induced by the applied field is linear in the field strength and rather weak. The above picture is a generalization as it pertains to materials with an extended lattice rather than a molecular structure.

The magnetic response calculated for a gas of electrons is not the full picture as the magnetic susceptibility coming from the ions has to be included. This fraction is proportional to the field strength and this explains the linear dependency.

Langevin’s Theory of Paramagnetism

Some paramagnetic materials retain spin disorder even at absolute zeromeaning they are paramagnetic in the ground statei. In that case the Curie-point is seen as a phase transition between a ferromagnet and a ‘paramagnet’.

The materials do show an ordering temperature above which the behavior reverts to ordinary paramagnetism with interaction. When the dipoles are aligned, increasing the external field will not increase the total magnetization since there can be no further alignment. In the latter case the diamagnetic contribution from the closed shell inner electrons simply wins over the weak paramagnetic term of the almost free electrons. In the case of heavier elements the diamagnetic contribution becomes more important and in the case of metallic gold it dominates the properties.


Stronger magnetic effects are typically only observed when d or f electrons are involved. Thus, condensed phase paramagnets are only possible if the interactions of the spins that lead either to quenching or to ordering are kept at bay by structural isolation of the magnetic centers.

Langevin's Theory of Paramagnetism

The permanent moment generally is due to the spin of unpaired electrons in atomic or molecular electron orbitals see Magnetic moment. Conductivity can be understood in a band structure picture as arising from the incomplete filling of energy bands. If one subband is preferentially filled over the other, one can have itinerant ferromagnetic order. Thus the total magnetization drops to zero when the applied field is paramavnetism. Although there are usually energetic reasons why a molecular structure results such that it does not exhibit partly filled orbitals i.

For low levels of magnetization, the magnetization of paramagnets follows what is paramatnetism as Curie’s lawat least approximately. When a magnetic field is applied, the dipoles will tend to align with the applied field, resulting in a net magnetic moment in the direction of the applied field.

This page was last edited on 16 Decemberat Some materials show induced magnetic behavior that follows a Curie type law but with exceptionally large values for the Curie constants.