primarily by Maurizio Lazzarato, Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri – succeed, to a certain extent .. Lazzarato, M. () ‘Immaterial Labor’, trans. P. Colilli and. Much of the work performed today is immaterial labor and it involves new power relations in which NOTE: Lazzarato is not describing digital. At the simplest level of definition, Lazzarato claims that immaterial labor is “labor that produces the informational and cultural content of the.

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Here the division between economy and culture begins to break down.

Immaterial Labor

From these considerations there emerge two principal consequences. This immaterial labor appears as a real mutation of “living labor.

Secondly, companies find themselves under pressure to conform to public values as they creatively respond. It is around immateriality that the quality and quantity of labor lqbor organized. In this environment, argues Lazzarato, “the capitalist needs to find an unmediated way of establishing command over subjectivity itself.

A significant amount of empirical research has been conducted concerning the new forms of the organization of work.

Lazzarsto, a third type of immaterial labor involves the production and manipulation of affects and requires virtual or actual human contact and proximity. The process by which the “social” and what is even more social, that is, language, communication, and so forth becomes “economic” has not yet been sufficiently studied.

The second, Bakhtin’s, in refusing to accept the capitalist division of labor as a given, elaborate a theory of social creativity. Among economists, the predominant view of this problematic can be expressed in a single statement: The term ideological does not characterize the immateeial as a “reflection” of reality, as false or true consciousness of reality.

Immaterial labor constitutes itself in immediately collective forms that exist as networks and flows.

Prior to being manufactured, a product must be sold, even in “heavy” industries such as automobile manufacturing; a car is put immqterial production only after the sales network orders it.

Lazzarato argues that role of communication is the key distinguishing feature between Fordism and post-Fordism. Immaterial labor is a MarxistAutonomist framework to describe how value is lazzaato from affective and cognitive activities, which, in various ways, are commodified in capitalist economies. Most services indeed are based on the continual exchange of information and knowledges.


The cycle of immaterial production Up to this point I have been analyzing and constructing the concept lazzadato immaterial labor from a point of view that could be defined, so to speak, as “microeconomic.

The first, Simmel’s, remain completely invested in the division between manual labor and intellectual labor and give us a theory of the creativity of intellectual labor. The various different post-Fordist models have been constructed both on the defeat of the Fordist worker and on the recognition of the centrality of an ever increasingly intellectualized living labor within production.

Once the privileged domain of the bourgeoisie and its children, these activities have since the end of the s become the domain of what we have come to labir as “mass intellectuality.

I do not mean to argue that affective labor itself is new or that the fact that affective labor produces value in some sense is new. The idea of “creative labor” has been analyzed in the context of immaterial labor. What modern management techniques are looking for is for “the worker’s soul to become part of the factory. Services If from industry proper we move on to the “services” sector large banking services, insurance, and so forththe characteristics of the process I have described appear even more clearly.

The new slogan of Western societies is that we should all “become subjects”. Moving from this common basis, there are two differing schools of thought: In a sense, life becomes inseparable from work. As Robert Reich says, the U. Today, with the new data available, we find the microeconomy in revolt against the macroeconomy, and the classical model is corroded by a new and irreducible anthropological reality.

The aesthetic model But how is the production process of social communication formed? Lazzarato argues that this model “threatens to be even more totalitarian than the earlier rigid divisions betwene mental and manual labor The Restructured Worker Lazzarato starts with post-fordism, where workers have greater agency and responsibility, who is an “interface The virtuality of this capacity is neither empty nor ahistoric; it is, rather, an opening and a potentiality that have as their historical origins and antecedents the “struggle against work” of the Fordist worker and, in more recent times, the processes of socialization, educational formation, and cultural self-valorization.


Immaterial labor

I believe that an analysis of immaterial labor and lazaarato description of its organization can lead us beyond the presuppositions of business theory – lzazarato in its neoclassical school or its systems theory school.

Views Read View form View source View history. I have defined working-class labor as an abstract activity that nowadays involves the application of subjectivity. Toyotism is based on an inversion of the Fordist structure of communication between production and consumption. In this section, Lazzarato argues that the subjugation of networks and “productive synergies” of immaterial labor to capitalist logic “does not take away the autonomy of the constitution and meaning of immaterial labor” but instead immateral up antagonisms and contradictions” ,5.

What has happened is that a new “mass intellectuality” has come into being, created out of a combination of the demands of capitalist production and the forms of “self-valorization” that the struggle against work has produced.

The necessity of imposing command and the violence that goes along with it here take on a normative communicative form. In the jmmaterial, the attempt to solve the problem comes through a redefinition of the problematic of the market.

Immaterial Labor – P2P Foundation

From a strictly economic point of view, the cycle of reproduction of immaterial labor dislocates the production-consumption relationship as it is defined as much by the “virtuous Keynesian circle” as by the Marxist reproduction schemes of the second volume of Capital. In Virno, Paolo; Hardt, Michael. That said, however, there are certainly numerous divisions within the realm of immaterial labor—international divisions of immaterial labor, gender immaterrial, racial divisions, and so forth.

This page was last modified on 30 Marchat The creative and innovative elements are tightly linked to the values that only the forms of life produce.