Evidentiality the Linguistic Coding of Epistemology Advances in Discourse Processes – Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. EVIDENTIALLY: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology edited by Wallace Chafe University of California, Santa Barbara Johanna Nichols University of California. With the Future Behind Them: Convergent Evidence From Aymara Language and Gesture in the Crosslinguistic Comparison of Spatial Construals of Time.

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The four predicate modes are indicated by the presence of a clitic modal particle in the clause, often in second position, together with mutually exclusive sets of final suffixes on the verb which provide information about tense distinctions in the declarative and interrogative modes. Noun and verb in Nootkan.

Catalog Record: Evidentiality : the linguistic coding of | Hathi Trust Digital Library

Evidentials, in other words, are not a morphologically unitary or distinct category in Makah. We begin the volume, therefore, with eight papers focused on languages in various parts of North and South America. There are other things people are less sure of, and some things they think are only within the realm of possibility. It does not attempt to offer a single, unified approach to evidentiality, because we believe that the time is not yet ripe for such a epitemology.

Put, Set, Lay, and Place: The Origins and Deictic Nature of Wintu Evidentials 55 drawn, elaborating on the nature of subjects and objects, and specifying the degree of involvement of each, as well as of the speaker if he is not identical with the subject or the object.

Introduction This book is about human awareness that truth is relative, and particularly about codinf ways in which such awareness is expressed in language.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology – Google Books

The Evidential System of Kashaya 33 indifferent to the distinction. He goes on to show how these various subtypes of evidentiality are rpistemology in conversational English and in academic written English. Reprinted in The shaping of American anthropology Legacy Other Form Online version Evidentiality.


The sight evidential suffix itself is ‘yuu which is transparently related to the verb yuu-k ‘see’ with the first person prefix ‘-; this is compatible with the semantics since this affix means that the event took place within the sight of the speaker. There are phrases, such as ‘with her own eyes’ in S On the semantically interlocking nature of the Kashaya verb prefixes: The Heterogeneity linguisitc Evidentials in Makah 17 shows uncertainty about a destination in the indicative version, and uncertainty about even the fact of someone going when the quotative is used.

The same slot before an auxiliary verb can be occupied by other markers of mood or aspect, such as bide ‘probably’, ote othe, Vizcayan tie ‘perhaps, maybe’, ohi oi, ei usitative, and al yes-no question marker cf. It should be kept in mind that in most occurrences of these suffixes the -a is realized phonemically as 0 Section 2.

I have noted that evidentials are especially favored in Makah with second person subjects, often with special functions. I have discussed epistdmology data at different times with Pamela Munro, Margaret Langdon, Sandra Thompson, Bonnie Glover, and Heather Hardy, and I would like to thank them for their interest and suggestions.

In S33besides the word scP ‘hear’, there is the verb loqcP, which has the particularized meaning ‘move linguistif something unseen’. Graham Thurgood describes evidentiahty in Akha, a language of the LoloBurmese family, where it is coded by several sets of sentence-final particles.

Add a tag Cancel Be the first to add a tag for this edition. These initials cannot convincingly be identified morphemically with anything else in the language.

A Study of Sherpa and English. In fact, its use in Patwin lf in many respects not clearly distinguishable from an epistemic ‘might’ modal, towards which it may have been evolving. Evidentiality, Modality and Probability. Thus, in his compact early report on Nootka —a language related distantly to Kwakiutl and closely to Makah—he only mentions, in discussing pronominal categories, evdentiality series of forms. The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology. Perfective stems can be suffixed only by the perfective members of these pairs; imperfective stems only by the imperfective members.


It seems clear that the individual categories are what might have diffused, rather than epistemolofy more generalized concept of evidentiality. One might then postulate that the initial elements, -w- and -m- are evidentialify and perfective markers. In some of them she recognizes and discusses evidentiality The data I was able to collect directly were mostly lexical or sentential, and what connected discourse I could record in two dialects shows little sign of the usage evidentiapity evidentials.

A grammar of the Washo language. In this way -botil-beti contrasts with bo – slbe – s as analyzed above. La Trobe University Library. The reconstruction of -ke- as part of the same morpheme as -kEl is supported by examples 13 and In several articles, starting in the late s, Dorothy D. These include a Suppositional suffix ‘I suppose that.

Evidentiality: The Linguistic Coding of Epistemology (Advances in Discourse Processes) (v. 20)

Linguistic acculturation in Nitinat. Their evidential function can be seen to arise from a kind of semantic subordination, where the focus of the predication shifts from the suffix 26 There is another Kwakiutl suffix, -xslaak” ‘apparently, seemingly, it seems like’, which is said to also mean ‘in a dream’ in the Koskimo dialect Boas With Aksu and Slobin’s paper we leave the New World and its evidential exuberance to examine a single Turkish suffix whose basic function is to convey inference and hearsay.

Note that at the time the evidentials were still verbs, verbs cannot yet have been marked for subject, or all evidentials would now be followed by the first person subject marker. V symbolizes 0 after a vowel, and various vowels determined by a preceding consonant: The Makah -t in -wa: Discourse Production and Comprehension.

A similar meaning is seen in Kwakiutl -s? The second indicative incremental suffix is -qadi. As stated in Section 3. Reprinted in Lee Linguistics and the Professions.